Literary genres weren’t invented by writers. They were invented by publishers. Writing is notoriously hard to categorize. Each book is unique, even books written by the same author. Publishers’ marketing departments hate this. Promote each book as a unique entity? That’s no way to do business.
So publishers identify niches, big groups of potential readers with similar interests, and market to them. Much easier, much more efficient, and (from the marketers’ perspective) much more effective.
At first the boundaries between niches are flexible, barely perceptible even. But with time they harden into walls. The niches become genres, and the genres subdivide into subgenres. The walls get higher, so that readers can barely see over them.
Reading Ray and Lorna Coppinger’s book Dogs: A Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior, and Evolution, I got the idea that the evolution of literature has a lot in common with the evolution of dogs.
The Coppingers believe that canids domesticated themselves (and evolved into dogs) after humans started settling into stationary villages, which featured on their outskirts stationary dumps — good foraging for those canids who didn’t mind being that close to people. These “village dogs,” both in history and in the present, developed certain common characteristics, e.g., a medium size that was big enough to defend itself but small enough to thrive on the food available. Physical differentiation started to happen when some humans figured out that dogs could be useful at certain tasks, such as herding or guarding livestock and pulling sleds.
“Breeds” as we know them, however, are relatively recent developments. Until a couple of centuries ago, a retriever was a dog that retrieved well — not necessarily a dog with retrievers on both sides of its pedigree. Whether a dog could retrieve well depended partly on its parents (did it have the right physical characteristics for the job?) and partly on how it was raised and trained. A Labrador retriever pedigree alone does not a good retriever make. The modern emphasis on “pure” breeds (meaning the stud books are closed, meaning genetic diversity takes a wallop), especially in the show ring, tends to divorce function from appearance and to focus heavily on the latter.
Literary genres are like breeds — of relatively recent development, especially the notion that there are clear lines between them and everything has to fit into one category. “Literature” is more like those village dogs of indeterminate breed: it adapts to the climate and food sources available, and maybe it looks a little like this, a little like that, but you can’t say for sure that it’s a beagle or a foxhound (or a mystery or a romance). When you’re trying to tell a story, you scavenge and steal from whatever’s in the vicinity and if it works you keep it.
All of which is not to say that genres aren’t useful to writers. Faced with a whole boundless ocean of possibilities, it’s easy to choke. Why not focus on the weather and currents, the flora and fauna, of a particular inlet or harbor or archipelago? By all means go ahead. Each genre has its tropes and conventions. Because readers are familiar with them, you don’t have to justify, say, the dead body that turns up in chapter 1 or the FTL (faster-than-light) starship that enables your characters to get from one planet to another. You can devote your writerly attention to other things.
Just keep in mind that many stories worth telling don’t fit neatly, or even messily, into one genre or another. In the attempt to squeeze them in, sacrifices have to be made. Genetic diversity may be lost. The end result might be a dog that looks sharp in the show ring but can’t do the job its ancestors did.
4 thoughts on “Genres and Dump Dogs”
This is terrific, love your writing style and interests!
On the other hand, genetic hardwiring does indeed matter when it comes to dog behavior and performance, and the fact that a dog meets conformation breed standards doesn’t preclude its basic ability to do the work. These days, the emphasis on a versatile dog is increasing.
But I think the analogy holds, because I believe while genre is important due to the same sort of hardwiring effect, certainly not every author fits neatly between those lines (I never have). It’s all about expectations, I think, and setting the correct expectations for the work (or the dog/breed/mix). That allows readers (and dog lovers!) to make the choices that are right for them. From the author side of things…I think we’re just going to write what we need to write! 8)
Meeting conformation standards definitely doesn’t preclude the ability to do the work, but when what gets pinned in the conformation ring comes adrift from function, things can get out of whack. This happens in horses as well as dogs. A certain look becomes popular, and people breed for it without testing it in the field.
Hardwiring may have something to do with the development of genres, but so does training. Writers who want to sell their work get positive reinforcement for fitting into a genre. If their work isn’t easily classified, they have a harder time finding an audience. I hope the changes under way in publishing will break down the barriers somewhat.
In my experience, that’s not truly the case. Genres are popular because they create expectations of the experience–Harlequin based its marketing on that fact with excellent success (although the publisher has erroneously applied some hardcopy assumptions to ebook marketing and has been slow to recognize the difference). In recent years, Berkeley has applied some of those lessons to mysteries with good effect, too.
So far I’m seeing the genre effect in the brave new world, but! The difference is that when an author has more of the cut and a long tail to work with, the lower sales of hanging around between or across genres can be rewarding enough to carry on. Especially to the muse!
As for dogs, I think there was a period of Not Being Very Smart about form vs function, but I do see a lot more value being placed on the performance potential/accomplishments than even ten years ago, so…I have hope! 8)